CENTER OF EXCELLENCE - Kidney Cancer

Primus kidney cancer specialists use the latest medical and surgical advances to find and treat kidney cancer at the earliest possible stage and provide you with the latest treatment options.

Renal cell cancer refers to the condition where there is a growth of cancer cells form in the tubules of the kidney. The most common type of renal cancer appears in the renal (kidney) tissue that helps in filtering the blood and produces the urine. This condition is commonly known as renal cell cancer (or renal cell carcinoma). Another kind of adult kidney tumour grows in the renal pelvis where the urine collects and this type of renal cancer is called transitional cell carcinoma.

Symptoms of Kidney Cancer

In most of the cases renal cancer is accidentally found on imaging (USG or CT) done for any other disease or on routine checkup.

  • Most of the people accidentally find out about cancer on routine ultrasounds indicative of renal mass. Other signs might be
  • (hematuria) blood in the urine
  • Lower back pain on either side
  • A lump on the side or on the lower back.
  • Tiredness
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Weight loss
  • Fever that does not occur due to an infection and that doesn’t go away(FUO)

Risk factors for Renal Cancer

Following are the risk factors for renal cell cancer

  • Smoking
  • Abuse of certain pain medicines, including over-the-counter pain medicines, for a prolonged period
  • Obesity
  • High blood pressure
  • Hereditary renal cell cancer
  • Presence of certain genetic disorders like hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma or von Hippel-Lindau disease.

Finding Renal Tumor

The following tests and procedures may be used to detect renal cancer

  • Physical exam and history
  • Ultrasound exam It is the most popular primary test to diagnose a renal mass/cancer.
  • Blood Test Certain blood tests like LFT, KFT and Serum Calcium are done for finding any abnormality.
  • Urinalysis This analysis is done for checking the colour of urine and its components, like red blood cells,sugar, protein, and white blood cells.
  • Liver function test Liver Function test or LFT is a diagnostic measure by which a sample of blood is examined for measuring the amounts of enzymes released into the bloodstream by the liver. An elevated amount of an enzyme can be a sign of cancer that has spread to the liver. Certain conditions that might not be cancerous can also increase liver enzyme levels.
  • CT scan (CAT scan) |Modality of choice In this technique, the computer-generated pictures that are linked to an x-ray machine are taken. In this technique, a dye is injected into a vein to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly in the CAT scan. This procedure is known by various names like computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) This technique makes uses a magnet, a computer and the radio waves for making detailed pictures of areas present inside the body. This procedure is also known as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
  • Biopsy Biopsy refers to the extraction of cells or tissues so that they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist for finding any signs of cancer. For performing biopsy for renal cell cancer, a fine needle is inserted into a tumour and a sample of tissue is extracted.

Stages of Renal Renal Cancer

  • After the diagnosis of renal cell cancer tests are performed for finding out if cancer cells have spread within the kidney or to any other regions of the body.

Stage I

In stage I, the tumour is about 7 centimetres and limited to the kidney.

Stage II

In stage II, the tumour becomes larger than 7 centimetres and is found only in the kidney.

Stage III

In stage III

  • In stage III, the tumour is of any size and cancer can be found only in the kidney & in the nearby lymph nodes; or
  • This stage of Cancer is found in the main blood vessels of the kidney or in the layer of fatty tissue that surrounds the kidney.

Stage IV

In stage IV, cancer spreads past the layer of fatty tissue surrounding the kidney and may be found in the adrenal gland present above the kidney, or in surrounding lymph nodes; or Cancer reaches the bloodstream in the kidney or in the layer of fatty tissue around the kidney. Cancer may be found in the nearing lymph nodes.

Surgical resection(radical or partial nephrectomy) is the affirmed, often therapeutic, treatment option for stage I, and II renal cell cancer. The surgical intervention includes removal of perirenal fat,kidney, adrenal gland, and Gerota fascia, with or without a local lymph node dissection.

In patients suffering from bilateral stage I neoplasms (concomitant or subsequent), unilateral partial nephrectomy with contralateral radical nephrectomy or bilateral partial nephrectomy when technically possible, maybe a selected alternative to bilateral nephrectomy with either transplantation or dialysis.

Growing evidence implies that a partial nephrectomy is remedial in selected cases. A pathologist should review the gross specimen apart from the frozen section from the parenchymal margin of extraction.

Laparoscopic Radical/Partial Nephrectomy is the technique that gives patients a safe and effective way of removing a diseased or cancerous kidney. Laparoscopic nephrectomy refers to a minimally invasive technique, that gives patients less trouble and gives similar results as compared to the larger incision needed with traditional open surgery.

What is laparoscopic partial nephrectomy surgery?

Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy is a minimally invasive technique used extensively for removing a portion of the kidney, used basically as a treatment for primary renal tumours.

It is a safer and effective way of removing a small renal tumour while protecting the remaining kidney. This is a minimally invasive procedure, that provides less discomfort to the patients with comparable results like the traditional open surgery.

Why Choose Primus

Where you receive your care matters. Primus Hospital is proud of our team and the exceptional care they provide

We Offer Personalized Care

We develop personalized treatment plans that take into account your age and lifestyle. Together we choose the best option for you.

We Are Leaders in Enhanced Recovery After Surgery

We are one of just a handful of hospitals in Delhi with an enhanced recovery program that adheres to guidelines to keep you healthier and get you back to the comfort of home sooner. This program is designed to reduce your in-hospital time and lessen the chance of complications, as well as monitor your need for pain medication and fluid levels for digestion.

Fast Evaluation

We offer a comprehensive, one-day evaluation. You’ll be seen by all the necessary specialists - a Urologist, Uro-Oncologist and Nephrologist.

Urology and Uro- Oncology Doctors
pict

Dr. M.S.Jha

Director & HOD - Advanced Urology, Uro-Oncology & Kidney Transplant
OPD Timings
Monday - Saturday
9 A.M to 5 P.M
pict

Dr. ​Prem​ ​Prakash​ ​Varma

Senior Consultant in Department​ ​of​ ​Nephrology
OPD Timings
Monday - Saturday
9 A.M to 5 P.M
pict

Dr. Saurabh Mittal

Senior Consultant in Department of Urology
OPD Timings
Monday - Saturday
9 A.M to 5 P.M
Frequently Asked Questions
What is urinary bladder?

The bladder is an elastic, hollow organ in the pelvic region that collects urine before it moves out from the body during urination, because of this role, it makes the bladder an essential part of the urinary tract.

The bladder, just as the any other part of the urinary tract, is lined with a band of cells known as urothelium. This layer of cells is secluded from the bladder wall muscles called muscularis propria, by a thin, fibrous band known as lamina propria.

What is bladder cancer ?

Bladder cancer is the abnormal growth of healthy cells in the bladder lining that grows excessively and out of control, forming a mass called a tumour.

What are the tumour types?

A tumour is of two types malignant and benign.

  • A malignant or a cancerous tumour means it can grow and expand to join other body parts.
  • A benign tumour grows but does not spread to other body parts.

There are three main types of bladder cancers

  • Urothelial carcinoma(most common). is the most common type of cancer that estimates for about 90% of all bladder cancers. This type of bladder cancer develops in the urothelial cells that are found in the lining of the urinary bladder. Earlier, this cancer was known as transitional cell carcinoma(TCC).
  • Squamous cell carcinoma. in response to irritation and inflammation squamous cells develop in the bladder lining (like patients on prolong catheterization). With time these cells become malignant. About 2-4% of all bladder cancers are squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Adenocarcinoma. About 2% of all bladder cancers are adenocarcinomas that develops from epithelial cells.
  • Bladder cancer is also defined as muscle-invasive, and non-muscle-invasive depending on whether it has spread into or through the muscle of the bladder wall.

What do stage and grade mean?

  • The stage refers to the location of cancer or to the place where it has developed, and whether it is affecting other parts of the body.
  • There are 5 stages of any cancer stage 0 (zero) and stages I to IV (1 through 4). The tumour is also given a grade, that defines how much healthy cancer cells look like when viewed under a microscope.

What is the right treatment for bladder cancer?

The treatment of bladder cancer depends on various factors such as grade, type and stage, of a tumour; potential side effects; and the patient’s decisions considering the overall well-being.

Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer(NMIBC)

This type of cancer is normally fully removed during a procedure called transurethral bladder tumour resection (TURBT).

The urologist may recommend additional treatments to reduce the risk of a recurrence, such as chemotherapy delivered through a catheter or immunotherapy.

Muscle-invasive bladder cancer

  • MIBC treatment involves surgical intervention for removing the complete bladder & nearby lymph nodes. This process is also called radical cystectomy.
  • The urologist will make way for passing urine out of the body, known as urinary diversion. Talk to the best urologist in Delhi about all treatment options.

Common Terms in Bladder cancer treatments

  • Biopsy it is the removal or obtaining of a tissue sample after examining under a microscope by a pathologist to check the growth of cancer cells
  • Catheter Catheter is a hollow tube that is put through the urethra for draining the urine or for delivering drugs for intravesical chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy The method of cancer treatment is extensively used for killing cancer cells
  • Cystoscopy Treatment Method where a urologist places a small, hollow viewing tube known as cystoscope into the urethra for viewing into the bladder.
  • Immunotherapy The use of materials made either by the body or in a laboratory to improve, target, or restore immune system function
  • Metastasis Metastasis refers to the spreading of cancer from its point of origin to another part of the body
  • Prognosis Chance of recovery
  • Radiation therapy The use of high-energy x-rays to destroy cancer cells
  • Tumor An unusual growth of body tissue is called a tumor.
  • TURBT(transurethral resection of bladder tumour) Procedure that removes the tumor with a small wire loop, a laser, or high-energy electricity
  • Urologic oncologist A Urologic Oncologist is a doctor who specializes in treating cancers of the urinary tract.