Kidney Stone Treatment
PCNL/PNL refers to Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) which is a minimally-invasive technique of removing stones from the kidney with the help of making a small puncture (less than 1 cm) in size through the skin from the back (as shown). It is suitable for the removal of stones, which are greater than 2 cm in size. This is usually done under general anaesthesia or spinal anaesthesia.
Ureteroscopy is a technique of inspecting the upper urinary tract (ureter and kidney). This procedure is generally performed with a ureteroscope (semi-rigid or flexible)that is passed through the urethra and the bladder, that directly enters into the ureter & kidney.
URS(Ureteroscopy and stone removal) : The Kidney stones that are smaller in size and are present in the ureter as well can be removed successfully in one piece, and the bigger ones are generally fragmented by laser before removing it with the help of ureteroscopy.
RIRS or flexible ureteroscopy:
Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is a relatively newer technique for the removal of stones. Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is a method of removing kidney stone with the help of a fiberoptic endoscope. RIRS Surgery permits a surgeon to perform surgery inside the kidney without an incision. The RIRS has proved to be quite effective for cases that are difficult-to-treat such as bleeding disorders and the occurrence of stones in children.
Indications for RIRS
Procedure of RIRS
RIRS is a procedure that is performed by an experienced urologist in India with unique expertise in RIRS. The method is carried out under general or spinal anaesthesia.
Ureteric access sheath is passed on a guidewire under continuous fluoroscopy.
Flexible Ureteroscope scope is then passed through the urethra (the urinary opening) in the bladder and then into the ureter and kidney.
The stone can be then seen through the Ureteroscope and fragmented with Holmium laser.
Small fragments are grasped by baskets (Nitinol Baskets) and taken out.
After the completion of RIRS Procedure, Double J stent is placed to facilitate the smooth drainage from kidney and avoid blocking in the ureter.
Advantages of RIRS