Abnormal curvatures in the spine are referred to as scoliosis and kyphosis. In the normal spine, there are normal curves if seen from the sides, but the spine is seen as a straight column from the front. In scoliosis, the spine shows curvatures from the front. In kyphosis, there is abnormal forward bending of the spine.
Most cases of scoliosis are mild, but some children develop spine deformities that continue to get more severe as they grow. Severe scoliosis can be disabling. An especially severe spinal curve can reduce the amount of space within the chest, making it difficult for the lungs to function properly.
Children who have mild scoliosis are monitored closely, usually with X-rays, to see if the curve is getting worse. In many cases, no treatment is necessary. Some children will need to wear a brace to stop the curve from worsening. Others may need surgery to keep the scoliosis from worsening and to straighten severe cases of scoliosis.
Signs and symptoms of scoliosis
Risk factors for developing the most common type of scoliosis include:
Scoliosis Surgery Procedure
It is done under general anesthesia. A posterior approach (from the back) is commonly used and involves correction of the deformity using screws and rods and/or bone graft (taken from the pelvis or an allograft).
The bone grows in between the vertebrae and holds them together and straight. This process is called spinal fusion. The metal rods attached to the spine ensure that the backbone remains straight while the spinal fusion takes place. The procedure is done under spinal cord monitoring where the cord functions are monitored during the surgery
Anterior approach through chest wall may be used in few patients.
The procedure may take 4-6 hours to complete. Hospital stay is of 5-10 days.
Normal routine can be resumed after four to six weeks. Contact sports are to be avoided after the surgery